"Black people are being surveilled and over-policed and carded at a rate that is disproportionate to other people, especially white citizens. Nelson notes, “I never had a Canadian student enter my class on day one knowing that slavery transpired in Canada.” While the majority of Canadians, including Nelson’s students, can attest to a general knowledge of the Underground Railroad—a movement that accounts for approximately 30 years of Canadian history—most are ignorant of a long history of slavery in their country. Criminalise forced labour as a distinct offence in the criminal code, in line with international definitions. To date, over 400 statements have been assessed by university students at Columbia University, ESCP Europe Business School, Johns Hopkins University, University of Nottingham, and the University of Western Australia. For historians like Afua Cooper at Dalhousie University in Halifax, these phenomena are all part of the legacy of slavery in colonial Canada. Twenty statements have been released to date by Canadian companies. For the first time, the topic of enslavement has been included in the 2013 revised Ontario Social Studies, History, and Geography curriculum. Other statements are less detailed, as they provide information on relevant policies and limited additional information on the steps taken to combat modern slavery directly. At the time, indigenous people … Therefore, true estimates are difficult to attain. Photo credit: Jim Rankin/Toronto Star via Getty Images, Imports of products at risk of modern slavery to Canada. By submitting a comment, you accept that CBC has the right to reproduce and publish that comment in whole or in part, in any manner CBC chooses. Additionally, section 279.02 criminalises receiving material benefits for the purpose of committing or facilitating trafficking and section 279.03 makes it a criminal offence to withhold or destroy a person’s identity documents for the purpose of trafficking.53 Forced labour and modern slavery are not criminalised in Canada’s penal code as distinct offences. Lovejoy also discounts comparisons with slavery in the Americas, and considers indigenous African slavery had only a limited impact on the development of the Atlantic trade. ", "So we're still subjected to a heightened surveillance on the basis of our race, and where does that come from? Justin Trudeau, Prime Minister of Canada, 2016. Galerand, E, Gallie, M & Ollivier-Gobeil, J 2015. The Code, used by Public Services and Procurement Canada (PSPC), the government of Canada’s central purchasing agency, is being updated to align with the government’s social and sustainable procurement policy objectives. In Canada, forced labour exploitation affects migrant workers, particularly those migrating to Canada under the ‘low-skilled’ temporary visa streams of the Temporary Foreign Workers Program (TFWP), including the low-wage and primary agricultural streams,2 the Seasonal Agricultural Workers Program (SAWP), and the Live-In Caregiver program (LCP).3 Although the Canadian government ceased accepting any new applications for the LCP from 30 November 2014, there are still many migrants working as caregivers who entered Canada under the former LCP stream. Thirty-three years ago, historian James Walker rightfully pointed out in his A History of Blacks in Canada: a Study Guide for Teachers and Students that “[w]e cannot understand early pioneer history unless we acknowledge that slavery existed”. And in early 2018, Black history experts told a Senate committee on human rights that the government should apologize and pay reparations to descendants of slaves. ‘Government of Canada takes step towards ethical procurement of apparel’ 2017. To encourage thoughtful and respectful conversations, first and last names will appear with each submission to CBC/Radio-Canada's online communities (except in children and youth-oriented communities). The Commonwealth Act establishes a national Modern Slavery Reporting Requirement that seeks to uncover the impact of large organisations on modern slavery both in Australia and abroad. He allegedly lured the girl with gifts, held her against her will, and forced her into the sex trade.21, According to a report by the South Asian Legal Clinic of Ontario (SALCO) released in 2013, 30 agencies surveyed in Ontario and Quebec reported 219 forced marriage cases between 2010 and 2012. [15, Argentina, Brazil, China, India, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam, China, Ghana, Indonesia, Japan, Russia, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, Sign and ratify the ILO Forced Labour Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention of 1930. Bourgeois, R 2015, Colonial Exploitation: The Canadian State and the Trafficking of IndigenousWomen and Girls in Canada. It existed both under the French and the English. The Fugitive Slave Act or Fugitive Slave Law was passed by the United States Congress on September 18, 1850, as part of the Compromise of 1850 between Southern slave-holding interests and Northern Free-Soilers.. Research conducted in 2012 and 2013 found that workers in the illegal gold mining industry in Peru find themselves trapped in debt-bondage like situations where they have to pay off excessive debts to recruiters and are threatened when they attempt to leave the mines.27 Fish is another product of significant import value that may be at risk of modern slavery. In addition, since the abolition of the LCP, migrants looking to work as caregivers in Canada can still do so by applying for a regular work permit.4, Workers employed under these streams may work in restaurants, hotels or other hospitality services, agriculture, food preparation, construction, manufacturing, or domestic work.5 Migrant workers, particularly those in low-skilled and caregiving positions, reportedly experience a wide range of abuse including verbal, physical, and sexual abuse. Marwaha, S 2017, ‘’Anyone can be a victim’: Canadian high school girls being lured into sex trade’. In 2014, three Eritrean workers filed a lawsuit against the mining company in the Supreme Court of Canada. By making corporate responsibility data accessible, comparable and free for all, the organisation aims to provide society with the tools it needs to encourage companies to respond to social and environmental challenges. The statements analysed by the Modern Slavery Act Project were the most recently available statements at the time the research was conducted – in most cases, this would be the 2016 statement. "How do you think they could catch fugitives, if not to have networks of people who were willing to put their necks on the line to catch people for a reward?". "11, Migrant workers who previously entered Canada under the Live-in Caregiver Program (LCP) are vulnerable to abuse and exploitation. The largest sectors represented are the banking sector (5) and software and services (4), followed by consumer durables and apparel (2). But what effect has it had so far? Appoint an Independent Anti-Slavery Commissioner who will be responsible for overseeing a coordinated response to modern slavery across all sectors. In 1793 Upper Canada (now Ontario) passed the Anti‐slavery Act. Canadian governments have issued apologies and compensation to LGBTQ communities, victims of Japanese internment and families affected by the Chinese head tax. Techniques used by traffickers include building dependence by buying gifts and posing as boyfriends.32 Younger male members of street gangs simulate affection as a tool to recruit young women.33 The Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) also identify young people and individuals already working in sex industries to be most vulnerable to modern slavery.34, Marginalised and disadvantaged communities are reportedly more vulnerable to forced sexual exploitation, including women from Indigenous communities, young women and girls, migrants, and children in protection services.35 According to a 2014 survey of 266 Canadian front-line response organisations conducted by the Canadian Women’s Foundation, 51 percent of trafficked girls had been in the child welfare system and 51 percent of trafficked women and girls were Indigenous. The United Nations has sounded the alarm on anti-Black racism in Canada, stating it can be traced back to slavery and its legacy. Ensure there is dedicated and adequate funding for victim assistance available for all provinces and territories. Of these 455 cases, 433 cases were domestic trafficking cases where Canadian or foreign citizens were exploited within Canada, primarily for the purpose of sexual exploitation. He specializes in human rights and development issues. ’16-year-old boy charged with sex trafficking of Edmonton girl’ 2018. While there were no cotton fields or sugar plantations in Canada, the treatment of slaves was no better than elsewhere. The Standing Committee on Human Resources, Skills and Social Development (HUMA) recommended in its 2016 review of the TFWP that the government abolish the ‘employer-specific work permit’ that ties workers to a specific employer and introduce pathways to permanent residency for all temporary foreign workers.62 Though the government announced some reforms to the TFWP as part of the 2017 federal budget, it rejected the recommendation of ending work permits that are tied to employers, thus rendering temporary migrant workers at risk of exploitation.63 There are also still significant barriers for temporary foreign workers to obtain permanent residence at this stage.64, In 2016, Ontario introduced its first Director of the newly established Provincial Anti-Human Trafficking Coordination Office who will be responsible for coordinating the implementation of Ontario’s Strategy to End Human Trafficking, working across ministries and in collaboration with the law enforcement, justice, social services, health, education, and child welfare sectors.65. "Policing arose out of slave patrols," says Charmaine Nelson, professor of art history at McGill University. PSPC also announced it will meet with suppliers, industry associations and other stakeholders in the apparel industry to discuss current practices on ethical manufacturing and sourcing throughout their supply chains.70 The government of Canada, through PSPC, reportedly has active contracts for the procurement of apparel totalling more than Can$640 million (US$509 million71).72, In 2016, the Walk Free Foundation and WikiRate73 partnered to develop a UK Modern Slavery Act Research project that would contribute to transparency on corporate action on modern slavery by enabling members of the public to view and assess modern slavery statements produced under Section 54 of the UK Modern Slavery Act.74 Section 54 requires businesses either headquartered or conducting business in the UK and with an annual turnover of over GBP36 million per annum to release an annual statement on the actions they are taking to respond to modern slavery.75 There are an estimated 12,000 to 17,000 statements that will be produced under this reporting requirement, many of which are housed on the Business and Human Rights Resource Centre (BHRRC) Modern Slavery Registry.76. The remaining 22 cases were international trafficking cases where victims were trafficked across international borders, predominantly for the purpose of forced labour. The study also found the workers were a "unique and vulnerable occupational group. Historian Afua Cooper talks about what it's like to be black in Canada today and always under surveillance. **This episode originally aired Feb. 25, 2018. ( See also Underground Railroad.) Although the dominant mode of slavery for the final 40 years of slavery in Canada was African (as American settlers brought their African slaves with them into the present-day Maritimes, Ontario and Quebecafter 1783), Indigenous slaves made up two-thirds of the slaves in Canada over the course of about 150 years. The Canadian government also announced plans to establish an Advisory Board on Responsible Business Conduct to advise the government and the CORE on responsible business conduct abroad.84, At the time of writing, the ground-breaking case of Araya v Nevsun Resources is before the Canadian courts.85 In 2008, Nevsun, a Canadian resources company, contracted the Eritrean government to build the Bisha mine and infrastructure, which involved the recruitment of local Eritrean workers. Comments are welcome while open. The African Slave Trade was not only a segment of US history. [15, https://knowthechain.org/wp-content/uploads/KTC-SugarcaneReport-Final_August-2017.pdf, http://dx.doi.org/10.14217/9781848599451-en, https://www.uclalawreview.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/Bourgeois-final_8.15.pdf, http://www.ourcommons.ca/Content/Committee/421/HUMA/Brief/BR8374833/br-external/MigrantWorkerSolidarityNetwork-e.pdf. The Bank of Montreal statement also provides details on the Bank’s supply chains and whistleblowing mechanisms, among other details. The plaintiffs allege that they were conscripted by the Eritrean government under their ‘National Service Program’ and forced to build the mine under conditions of modern slavery.86 Therefore, the plaintiffs claim that Nevsun Resources was complicit in and profited from crimes of modern slavery by using forced labour to build the Bisha Mine in Eritrea. First, a quick reminder of the Act itself and the scale of the issue it seeks to address. Slavery is Canada's best-kept secret Canada has burnished its reputation as the terminal station of the Underground Railroad, a safe haven for runaway slaves. 7 On Prince Edward Island, the complete abolition of slavery was pronounced by the legislature on 1825, nine years before the Imperial abolition of 1834. Of those affected by forced marriage, 92 per cent were female, six per cent male, just over one percent were transgender, and less than one percent were unknown.22 The report notes this number may however be skewed due to a lack of outreach to male clients. The ramifications of both the trauma of slavery and the massive wealth gap it created have reverberated across the generations. See https://wikirate.org/Estee_Lauder_Cosmetics_Limited?filter%5Bmetric_value%5D=all&filter%5Bproject%5D=UK+Modern+Slavery+Act+Research for more details. Legacy A 2017 report by the United Nations Human Rights Working Group called on Canada to recognize the lasting damage done by slavery and segregation. Listen to Part 1 of this series: Canada's slavery secret: The whitewashing of 200 years of enslavement. ​** This episode was produced by Mary Lynk. Marwaha, S 2017, ‘Anyone can be a victim’: Canadian high school girls being lured into sex trade. "What slavery did in Canada was it made [the concept of] race," she says. Building a commercial enterprise out of the wilderness required labor and lots of it. It also notes that the NAP has made a limited contribution to the investigation and prosecution of trafficking crimes due to a range of external factors, such as jurisdictional constraint and the difficulty of collecting sufficient evidence for the prosecution, which limits the ability of federal law enforcement agencies to conduct such investigations.61 A new NAP had not yet been published at the time of writing. [15, http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2015/30/contents/enacted, https://www.modernslaveryregistry.org/explore?countries%5B%5D=1495&company_name=&legislation_UK+Modern+Slavery+Act=yes, http://claihr.ca/2017/04/06/araya-v-nevsun-resources-ltd-an-overview/, https://s3-ap-southeast-2.amazonaws.com/walkfreefoundation.org-assets/content/uploads/2018/03/29152400/02_The-Nevsun-Effect-1801229-Final-.pdf. Department of Immigration and Citizenship 2018, Lindsay, B 2017, ‘Foreign workers allege ‘life savings’ paid for Mac’s jobs that didn’t exist’. A statement by IBI group81 is not signed and includes details on a code of conduct. Unlike our American cousins, Canada did not itself end its slavery ― in fact, in 1777 slaves began fleeing Canada for Vermont, which had just abolished slavery. Two-thirds of the interviewed workers also reported that they were recruited through an employment agency which charged high fees for organising their employment and documentation. Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons 2017. The Global Slavery Index estimates that on any given day in 2016 there were 17,000 people living in conditions of modern slavery in Canada, a prevalence of 0.5 victims for every thousand people in the country. 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