Parades include huasos, the traditional Chilean cowboys, music, and displays of national pride. C. The movement for Chilean independence was inspired by the US, who had declared their independence, the Argentine independence movement, the agitation for self-rule by European colonies throughout the world, and the fact that France had invaded Spain. In 1810, Chile was proclaimed an autonomous republic of the Spanish monarchy. After two coups, both in the end of 1811, the ambitious Carrera managed to take power, inaugurating a dictatorship. Nearly all of the scattered tribes were related in race and language, but they lacked … Chile took the first steps toward independence in 1810, after Chilean colonists learned that the king of Spain had been deposed by Napoleon I of France. History of Chilean Independence Day On September 18th 1810, Chile broke from Spanish rule, declaring their independence. Within four years a combined Argentinian and Chilean army managed to defeat and drive out the Spanish army, restoring Chile's independence. Chile Independence Day. At the September 18 session, they grabbed center stage with shouts of "¡Junta queremos! Other articles where History of Chile is discussed: Chile: History: At the time of the Spanish conquest of Chile in the mid-16th century, at least 500,000 Indians inhabited the region. The Chilean War of Independence was a war between pro-independence Chilean Criollo peoples seeking political and economic independence from Spain and royalist creoles supporting continued allegiance to the Captaincy General of Chile and membership of the Spanish Empire. While San Martín and O'Higgins organized an army to recross the Andes and recapture Santiago, they charged the lawyer Manuel Rodríguez with the task of mounting a guerrilla campaign. Although Spain did not find the silver and gold minerals they were after, the agricultural potential of Chile was enough for them to make Chile part of their empire. Because of the disagreements and resulting lack of coordination, the independence forces were divided, and O'Higgins was obliged to meet the royalists at Rancagua without reinforcements. The next Europeans entered through Peru in 1535 in search of gold. After the 1810 declaration, the Chilean War of Independence broke out in search of economic and political independence. The 221 B.C.E. The Chilean Declaration of Independence is a document declaring the independence of Chile from the Spanish Empire. On September 18th Chile celebrated 200 years of independence from Spain, featuring fiestas, cultural events, and redevelopment.Sounds and Colours takes a look at the activities celebrating the anniversary and see how the west was won. The country gained full independence from Spain in 1810. These groups were all decidedly against independence from Spain and differentiated themselves only in the degree of political autonomy that they sought. The resulting battle, the Disaster of Rancagua, on October 1 and 2 of 1814, was fought fiercely, but ended in stunning defeat for the independence forces of which only 500 of the original 5,000 survived. In any case, the Spanish believed that it was necessary to teach the revolutionaries a good lesson and embarked on a campaign of fierce political persecution, led by the infamous Vicente San Bruno. History of Chile Independence Day. At the time, the governor of this province was José de San Martín, a leader of the Argentine independence movement who would become regarded as the "Simón Bolívar" of the southern part of Spanish South America. In 1809, Governor García Carrasco himself was implicated in a flagrant case of corruption (the Scorpion scandal) that managed to destroy whatever remnants of moral authority he or his office had left. Two other important dates are associated with Chinese independence, according to the CIA World Fact Book. [4] This allowed the country in the mid-19th century to exploit the opportunities that the California Gold Rush and the Australian gold rushes created for exporting wheat. Three political tendencies were starting to appear: the Extremists (Spanish: exaltados), the Moderates (Spanish: moderados) and the Royalists (Spanish: realistas). From that moment on the pressure for his removal began to build. Chile covers an area of 756,096 square kilometres (291,930 sq mi) and has a population of 17.5 million as of 2017. So, the Santiago elections were the key to Rozas' desire to remain in power. Fort Bulnes established, the first Chilean presence on the Strait of Magellan. Although they would have to fight for eight more years to earn their total freedom, Chile celebrates the 18th of 1810 with great fanfare. A large group of patriots (among them Carrera and O'Higgins) decided to flee to Mendoza, an Andean province of the newly independent Argentina. To further secure Chilean independence, San Martín launched a series of actions against armed bands in the mountains, consisting of assorted outlaws, royalists, and Indians who had taken advantage of the chaos of military expeditions and forced recruitments to pillage and sack the countryside. This was important, as it established a direct link between the liberalism and federalism of the United States with the principles of the Chilean independence movement. San Martín then led his Argentine and Chilean followers north to liberate Peru; and fighting continued in Chile's southern provinces, the bastion of the royalists, until 1826. In 1821, José de San Martín defeated forces loyal to Spain and in 1826, the last Spanish troops surrendered. Harvey, Robert. When Did Cuba Gain Its Independence from Spain. CHILE, ERROR, CENTENARY OF INDEPENDENCE, YEAR 1910 # 96. The troops landed in Concepción, where they were received with applause. The Junta then proceeded to take some concrete measures that had been long-held aspirations of the colonials: it created a militia for the defense of the kingdom, decreed freedom of trade with all nations that were allied to Spain or neutrals, a unique tariff of 134% for all imports (with the exception of printing presses, books and guns which were liberated from all taxes) and in order to increase its representativity, ordered the convocatory of a National Congress. Republican era (1818–1891) Constitutional organization (1818–1833) See also: Chilean Civil War of 1829 and Chilean Constitution of 1833 Additionally, Carrera was responsible for bringing the first American consul to Chile. Chile celebrates Independence Day as a public holiday. By March 1811, 36 representatives had already been elected in all major cities with the exception of Santiago and Valparaíso. This is a national celebration in which the concepts of freedom are central. Harassed on all sides, Carrera resigned, in what is commonly taken to mark the beginning of the period of the Reconquista. The Chilean War of Independence was part of the more aroused Spanish American wars of independence. He was a very old man already (82 years old at the time) and moreover a "criollo" (someone born in the colonies) as opposed to a "peninsular" (someone born in Spain). Their road to independence from Spain started on that date in 1810. During this time, a well-connected young man and a veteran of the Peninsular War, José Miguel Carrera, returned to Chile from Spain. Moreover, the Supreme Central Junta, which had governed the Empire for the past two years, had abolished itself in favor of a Regency Council. We want a junta!"). Celebrations include parades, music, dance competitions, traditional Chilean food, and rodeos where two horsemen attempt to correctly coral a calf in an arena for points. 1843: University of Chile founded. In these critical circumstances, the erstwhile Manuel Rodríguez jumped to the lead, haranguing and rallying the soldiers with the cry "There's still a country, citizens!" [5][6], "Battle of Chile" redirects here. The country was ruled by a governor who was appointed by the King. The 221 B.C.E. Chile began pushing for its independence from Spain in 1808. O'Higgins wanted to defend the city of Rancagua, while Carrera wanted to make the stand at the pass of Angostura, a more felicitous defensive position but also closer to Santiago. The goals of the campaign were to keep the Spanish forces off balance, ridicule San Bruno, and generally bolster the morale of the patriots. What started as a political movement among elites against the colonial power, ended as a full-fledged civil war. Meanwhile, Bernardo O'Higgins moved north to somehow stop the advance of the royalists. The liberating Army of the Andes was prepared by 1817. Count Toro Zambrano was elected President, and the rest of the positions were distributed equally among all parties, but the real power was left in the hands of the secretary, Juan Martínez de Rozas. Trade with Peru did not fully recover after the independence struggles. Chile celebrates its independence through the Fiestas Patrias on September 18 each year. In Chile the initial move toward independence was made on September 18, 1810, when a cabildo abierto (open town meeting) in Santiago, attended by representatives of privileged groups whose vaguely defined objectives included a change in administration, accepted the resignation of the President-Governor and in his place elected a junta composed of local leaders. In the confusion, a false rumor spread that San Martin and O'Higgins had died, and a panic seized the patriot troops, many of whom agitated for a full retreat back across the Andes to Mendoza. Chile won its independence from Spain in 1818 under Bernardo O'Higgins and an Argentinian, José de San Martin. Chile Independence Day: September 18. The great political surprise up to that point had been the results from the other center of power, Concepción, in which Royalists had defeated the supporters of Juan Martínez de Rozas. Although Moderates—who continued advocating political control of the elites and greater autonomy without a complete rupture from Spain—gained the majority of seats, a vocal minority was formed by Extremist revolutionaries who now wanted complete and instant independence from Spain. This effort failed, as did a subsequent inconclusive assault led by Gabino Gaínza. During the two days, public buildings and places must fly the Chilean flag either from a white flag post or storefront. Trade was disrupted and armies in Chile pillaged the countryside. In 1808 Napoleon occupied Spain and deposed the king Ferdinand VII. This election was supposed to take place on April 10, but before they could be called the Figueroa mutiny broke out. Among those arrested were José Antonio de Rojas, Juan Antonio Ovalle and Bernardo de Vera y Pintado. The royalist force landed and moved to Chillán, demanding complete surrender. Quickly, he was involved with the intrigues of various Extremists who plotted to wrest power from Martínez de Rozas through armed means. It was eventually decided that elections for the National Congress, to be composed of 42 representatives, would be held in 1811. Chile Independence Day This week, I stayed in Santiago to spend time with my new friends, Mateo and Sofia, and see the Chile Independence Day celebrations. The Republic of Chile first declared its independence from Spain on September 18, 1810. Overview of holidays and many observances in Chile during the year 2020 Ferdinand Magellan was the first European to visit what is now Chile. (Source: BBC, CIA World Factbook) 5. Chile is a republic. Meanwhile, a provisional Constitution of 1812 was promulgated with a marked liberal character. era marks the year in which all of China was unified under the Qin Dynasty, and January 1, 1912, is the date on which the Qing Dynasty was … Shortly thereafter, a movement for total independence from Spain began and several wars broke out until 1817. Eventually, however, a National Congress was duly elected, and all 6 deputies from Santiago came from the Moderate camp. Chile celebrates its independence each year with Fiestas Patrias on 18th and 19th of September. The majority of the people were fervent royalists but were divided into two groups: those who favored the status quo and the divine right of Ferdinand VII (known as absolutists) and those who wanted to proclaim Charlotte Joaquina as Queen (known as carlotists). Chile began pushing for its independence from Spain in 1808. The flag must be pristine and hung from a white pole or from the front of the building. Chilean revolutionaries declared Chile’s independence on September 18, 1810. The Guerra a muerte phase was particularly destructive and ended only to see a period of outlaw banditry (e.g. After vacillating for some time over which party to follow, Toro Zambrano finally agreed to hold an open Cabildo (city hall) meeting in Santiago to discuss the issue. The country had been under Spanish rule since the 16th century, so naturally, this was a huge deal. According to The Guinness Book of Records, Chile has the world’s largest swimming pool with a length of 1,000 yards, an area of 20 acres and a maximum depth of 115- feet.It holds 66 million gallons of crystal clear seawater. [2] Being isolated from Central Chile by hostile Mapuche-controlled territory and dependent upon seaborne trade with the port of Callao in Peru the city of Valdivia was particularly badly hit by the decline of the trade with Peru. The Fiestas Patrias is an annual holiday celebrated over two days to mark Chile’s independence. Brigadier García Carrasco was a man of crude and authoritarian manners, who managed in a very short time to alienate the criollo elites under his command. The official proclamation of independence took place on February 12, 1818 while there were still pockets of the Chilean War of Independence. ¡junta queremos!" The Extremists were the second most important group and they advocated a larger degree of freedom from the Crown and a faster pace of reforms stopping just short of full independence. The first two decades afterward were a period of transition to democracy from the dictatorship of General Augusto Pinochet. ("We want a junta! Chile is modern and civilized, especially in Santiago. In June 1810 news arrived from Buenos Aires that Napoleon Bonaparte's forces had conquered Andalusia and laid siege to Cádiz, the last redoubt against the French on Spanish soil. The idea of full independence gained momentum for the first time. Independence was all but secured, and worries about internal divisions were allayed when O'Higgins saluted San Martín as savior of the country, a moment which came to be known as the Embrace of Maipú. From the very beginning, the juntistas took the political initiative. Shortly thereafter, a movement for total independence from Spain began and several wars broke out until 1817. The Real Audiencia of Chile, a long-standing pillar of Spanish rule, was dissolved for its alleged "complicity" with the mutiny. Thus, a fleet and army was prepared for an expedition to the country, and in 1820, San Martín and Cochrane set off for Peru. On September 18th, 1810 Chile had it’s first Government Junta which was its earliest steps toward Independence from Spain; Joined the UN at its Formation on October 24th, 1945; Member of the UN Economic and Social Council; Capital City and Largest City is Santiago with a Population of 6,310,000 about the size of Missouri Details about CHILE, ERROR, CENTENARY OF INDEPENDENCE, YEAR 1910 # 96. Meanwhile Napoleo… In August the Royal Appeals Court (Spanish: Real Audiencia) took a public loyalty oath to the Regency Council in front of a massive audience, which put added pressure on the Governor to define himself. Chile's president is Sebastián Piñera since March 2018; Chile Facts | Chile Geography. Governor Guzmán had suddenly died in February of that year and the crown had not been able to appoint a new governor before the invasion. In Chilean historiography, the Patria Nueva generally ends in 1823, with the resignation of O'Higgins. Nonetheless, the mutiny also encouraged a radicalization of political postures. Chile first declared independence in 1810, but the resulting internal instability led to a restoration of Spanish rule in 1814. For the film by Patricio Guzman, see, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Iberian Peninsula and South America (1762–63), Banda Oriental and Rio Grande do Sul (1762–63), "Los industriales alemanes de Valdivia, 1850-1914", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Chilean_War_of_Independence&oldid=987369383, Articles with Spanish-language sources (es), Articles lacking in-text citations from October 2009, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2009, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Count Toro Zambrano, faced with this very public show of force, acceded to their demands by depositin… On the first anniversary of the Battle of Chacabuco, O'Higgins formally declared independence. During the independence celebrations you will see hundred being sold and flown overhead. Independence Celebrations Every year, on September 18 th, Chile celebrates Independence with a bang to commemorate the beginning of the independence process from the Spanish Crown. Immediately, political intrigue began amongst the ruling elite, with news of the political turbulence and wars of Europe all the while coming in. Chile finally agreed to recognize the disputed territory as Bolivian as long as Bolivia did not increase the export tax on Chilean nitrate companies operating there. Chile won its formal independence when San Martín defeated the last large Spanish force on Chilean soil at the Battle of Maipú on April 5, 1818. September 19 is the second day of the holiday and it also called the “Day of the Glories of the Army.” This holiday doubles up as the spring festival because it happens close to the Southern Hemisphere’s spring equinox. At the September 18 session, they grabbed center stage with shouts of "¡Junta queremos! O'Higgins, dictator until 1823, laid the foundations of the modern state with a two-party system and a centralized government. Pareja then attempted to take Santiago. By 1808, the Governor, Francisco Antonio García Carrasco, found himself in a smuggling and corruption scandal that Spain did not handle well, leading to the governor losing the moral authority and therefore fueling the desire for self-rule. One of the most important festivals in Chile is the celebration of their Independence Day. Upon the arrival of the exiles, San Martín immediately began to favor O'Higgins (probably because of their shared membership in the Logia Lautaro, a pro-independence secret society).Carrera's influence begun to fade and ended finally when he was executed by firing squad in 1821. San Martín then led his Argentine and Chilean followers north to liberate Peru; and fighting continued in Chile's For these celebrations the Chilean government has made a conscious effort to touch as many different aspects of life as possible. Their leader was Juan Martínez de Rozas. Like many other countries, Chile’s declaration of independence led to years of war, until true independence was achieved on 12 February 1818. This period was divided into three stages: the Old Homeland (1810-1814), the Reconquest or Monarchical Restoration (1814-1817) and the New Homeland (1817-1823). Traditionally, the beginning of the war is dated as September 18, 1810. In the rest of Chile, the results were more or less equally divided: twelve pro-Rozas delegates, fourteen anti-Rozas and three Royalists. John Murray, London (2000). After a brief interim regency by Juan Rodríguez Ballesteros, and according to the succession law in place at the time, the position was laid claim to and assumed by the most senior military commander, who happened to be Brigadier Francisco García Carrasco. The mutiny was successful in that temporarily sabotaged the elections, which had to be delayed. It usually covers the years 1808–1830, and it is much related to events in Europe and in other regions of South America, especially Peru and the … All maps, graphics, flags, photos and original descriptions © 2020 worldatlas.com. The viceroy Abascal confirmed Mariano Osorio as governor of Chile, although a later disagreement between the two would result in Osorio's removal and the installation of Francisco Casimiro Marcó del Pont as governor in 1815. So in Chile the leading citizens elected a junta in September 1810. Only after the band of Vicente Benavides was liquidated in 1822 was the region around Concepcion finally pacified. As a result, in 1813, he sent a military expedition by sea under the command of Antonio Pareja to deal with the situation in Chile, and sent another force by land to attack northern Argentina. Inspired by the May Revolution in Argentina, the autonomy movement had also propagated through the criollo elite. In 1540, a serious conquest of Chile began and by 1541, the Spaniards founded Santiago. At the start of 1808, the Captaincy General of Chile – one of the smallest and poorest colonies in the Spanish Empire – was under the administration of Luis Muñoz de Guzmán, an able, respected and well-liked Royal Governor. However, his forces were surprised and very badly beaten at the Second Battle of Cancha Rayada on March 18, 1818. In one of his more celebrated actions, he disguised himself as a beggar and succeeded in obtaining alms from Governor Marcó del Pont himself, who by that time had put a price on Rodríguez's head. The current constitution was adopted in 1980; in a rather unique occurence, the constitution was approved by a national referendum. He made his own brother, Joseph, king of Spain. The Vatican acknowledges the Independence of Chile 1841: Manuel Bulnes, victorious marshal of the Battle of Yungay, elected president of Chile. Chile won its formal independence when San Martín defeated the last large Spanish force on Chilean soil at the Battle of Maipú on April 5, 1818. A declaration of independence was officially issued by Chile on February 12, 1818 and formally recognized by Spain in 1840, when full diplomatic relations were established. Chile’s criollo leaders chose this as the day to declare a limited sort of self-government. In 1810, Chile was proclaimed an autonomous republic of the Spanish monarchy. A declaration of independence was officially issued by Chile on February 12, 1818 and formally recognized by Spain in 1844, when full diplomatic relations were established.[1]. Chile’s declaration of independence led to over a decade of violence that eventually ended in 1826. Then, on April 5, 1818, San Martín inflicted a decisive defeat on Osorio the Battle of Maipú, after which the depleted royalists retreated to Concepcion, never again to launch a major offensive against Santiago. This includes parades, dances, drinking, eating traditional Chilean food, and music. Chile celebrates its independence each year with Fiestas Patrias on 18th and 19th of September. In the meantime, Charlotte Joaquina, sister of Ferdinand and wife of the King of Portugal, who was living in Brazil, also made attempts to obtain the administration of the Spanish dominions in Latin America. However, the audacious and daring character of Cochrane conflicted with the excessive prudence of San Martín. Chile is located on the South American continent. September 17, 2020 On behalf of the Government of the United States and the American people, I congratulate the people of Chile on the occasion of the 210th anniversary of your independence. From the very beginning, the juntistas took the political initiative. Th 18th September heralds the early arrival of spring, the time of year when the wind picks up - perfect kite flying weather! As San Martín worked to establish internal stability, O'Higgins also looked to defend the country against further external threats by the Spanish and continue to roll back imperial control. By law, all public buildings must display the Chilean flag during the celebrations. Finally in 1879 war began between Chile on one side and Peru and Bolivia on the other. This page was last edited on 6 November 2020, at 16:04. Independence did not have unanimous support among Chileans, who were divided between independentists and royalists. However, this was not due to the military performance of Carrera, whose incompetence led to the rise of the moderate O'Higgins, who eventually took supreme control of the pro-independence forces. The fortune of this city would not shift until the arrival of German settlers in the late 1840s. Since the turn of the new millennium, the democratic process has been much stronger.Until the most recent election, Chilean elections were based around a system known as binomialism. He developed the Chilean navy as a line of defense against seaborne attacks, placing the Scotsman Lord Cochrane in the post of admiral. It was drafted in January 1818 and approved by Supreme Director Bernardo O'Higgins on 12 February 1818 at Talca, despite being dated in Concepción on 1 January 1818. Later Cochrane disembarked troops under commander William Miller at northern Chiloé Island in order to conquer the last Spanish stronghold in Chile, the Archipelago of Chiloé. He resolved to recall his son-in-law, Mariano Osorio, sending him south with another expeditionary force. This time of irregular warfare was later called the Guerra a muerte (Total war) for its merciless tactics, as neither the guerillas nor the government soldiers took prisoners. In a nutshell, it’s because Chile declared its independence from Spanish rule on September 18th, 1810. The conquest of Chile was a gradual process because the native communities revolted time and again until 1683 when Spain abolished slavery but the relationship between them remained stained. Statistically speaking, Chile is the second safest country in the whole Americas when measured by a number of intentional homicides (murders), right after Canada and ahead of the United States. It supported the independence movement. Within four years a combined Argentinian and Chilean army managed to defeat and drive out the Spanish army, restoring Chile's independence. 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